Complex Aluminium Borosilicate
Tourmaline comes in many colors such as blue, yellow, pink, red, black, green and clear. Tourmaline comes in many colors - but primarily in pink and green. It is beautiful in rings, necklaces, and pendants. More on...
- Indicolite (blue or blue-green) -- moderately scarce and expensive in fine qualitities.
- Rubellite (red) -- moderately scarce and expensive in fine qualitities. Often badly included.
- Bicolor or tricolor tourmaline -- shows multiple color zones throughout the crystal. Highly prized when the colors are well divided and vivid. Often badly included and subject to fracture along the color transition line.
- Watermelon tourmaline -- has a red central core surrounded by green, resembling the cross section of a watermelon. Often cut in thin slices to show the colors to best advantage.
- Schorl -- black tourmaline.
- Dravite -- brown tourmaline.
- Chrome tourmaline -- vivid green. Derives its color from chromium. Appears red when viewed through a Chelsea filter (emerald filter). Fairly scarce and expensive.
- Achroite -- colorless tourmaline. Fairly rare.
Tourmaline occurs as lustrous, elongate crystals which commonly have a rounded triangular cross section and narrow grooves running parallel to their long direction. The crystals range in size from microscopic to over a foot long. The best examples in Maine are found in a very coarse-grained type of granite called "pegmatite". The slow cooling and solidification of the pegmatite veins allowed the mineral grains to grow to much larger sizes than in ordinary granite. The black tourmaline crystals and many of the brightly colored ones are usually encased in the surrounding rock. However, conditions in some places favored the development of open cavities in which elbaite crystals grew with greater perfection and clarity. These pegmatite "pockets" are the source of Maine's finest gem tourmalines.
Several spectacular tourmaline pockets were discovered in the Dunton Mine in Newry, Maine, in 1972. Many fabulous red and green crystals were found, including the ten-inch Jolly Green Giant, which is now in the National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C.
The State Legislature adopted turquoise as the State Gem on March 23, 1967. Cabeza de Vaca was the first to note the use of turquoise among the Indians around the year 1535. Ranked with the jades of the Orient and lapis in the Near East, turquoise has been revered for thousands of years. In the Southwestern United States, no gemstone has been held in greater esteem. Diggings at Chaco Canyon and other ancient sites have revealed tens of thousands of pieces of turquoise in various stages of lapidary treatment. Where ancient leaders were buried, the amount of turquoise present in the grave sites indicates that it was a stone of significance long ago. Hardly a deposit of turquoise was left undiscovered by the ancient ones. Today, the gem material's popularity reaches from the Southwestern United States across the entire world.
Turquoise is our state's semi- precious gemstone. Sometimes called the jewel of the desert, Nevada turquoise is found in many parts of the state. Long popular as jewelry among Native Americans, turquoise is also a state symbol of Arizona and New Mexico.
Care and Treatment
As with all gems, protect tourmaline from scratches and sharp blows. Also avoid large temperature changes (such as leaving it be a heater vent or in a hot car). Do not clean tourmaline in a home ultrasonic cleaner.
Tourmaline has a hardness of 7.0 - 7.5.
Specific Gravity: 3.02 - 3.26
Dispels fear & negativity & grief; calms nerves; concentration & eloquence improve; genetic disorders, cancer & hormones regulated; raises vibrations; charisma; universal law; tranquil sleep.
Black Tourmaline: Arthritis; dyslexia; syphilis; heart diseases; anxiety; disorientation; raises altruism; deflects negativity; neutralizes distorted energies, i.e. resentment & insecurity.
Rubellite: Creativity; fertility; blanches passive or aggressive nature.
Green: Creativity; opens heart chakra; immune system; psychological problems with the father; blood pressure; asthma; balancer; eliminates conflict within.
Blue indicolite: Lungs, larynx; thyroid; parasympathetic nerves.
Watermelon: Heart chakra healer; imparts sense of humor to those who need it; balancer; eliminates guilt; nervous system; integration, security & self-containment.
- October: Modern/Traditional Birthstone; Other Birthstone (Pink Tourmaline)
Star Stone Months
According to legend, all colors of tourmaline protect the wearer against many dangers and misfortune.
Tourmaline is the US State Gemstone of Maine. Black Buttom Tourmaline is the US State Gemstone of New York.