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New Mexico Timeline of State History
Chronological History of New Mexico
- c. 25000 B.C. - Sandia people leave earliest evidence of human existence in what is now New Mexico.
- c. 10000-9000 B.C. - Clovis hunters roam area in search of mammoth, bison and other game.
- c. 9000-8000 B.C. - Folsom people flourish throughout Southwest at the end of the last Ice Age.
- c. 10000-500 B.C. - Cochise people are first inhabitants to cultivate corn, squash and beans, the earliest evidence of agriculture in the Southwest.
- A.D. 300-1400 - Mogollon culture introduces highly artistic pottery and early architecture in the form of pit houses.
- A.D. 1-700 - Anasazi basketmakers elevate weaving to a high art, creating baskets, clothing, sandals and utensils.
- A.D. 700-1300 - Anasazi culture culminates in the highly developed Chaco Civilization.
- A.D. 1200-1500s - Pueblo Indians establish villages along the Rio Grande and its tributaries.
- 1536 - Cabeza de Vaca, Estevan the Moor and two others reach Culiacdn, Mexico, after possibly crossing what is now southern New Mexico, and begin rumors of the Seven Cities of Cibola.
- 1539 - Fray Marcos de Niza and Estevan lead expedition to find Cibola and reach the Zuni village of Hawikuh, where Estevan is killed.
- 1540-42 - Francisco Vasquez de Coronado explores area from Gulf of California to present-day Kansas, discovers the Grand Canyon.
- 1580-81 - Fray Agustin Rodriguez leads expedition to New Mexico; four members of the party killed by Indians.
- 1582-83 - Fray Bernadino Beltran and Fray Antonio de Espejo lead expedition to New Mexico to search for survivors of the ill-fated Rodriguez mission.
- 1598 - Juan de Onate establishes the first Spanish capital of San Juan de los Caballeros at the Tewa village of Ohke north of present-day Espanola
- 1599 -
- Battle at Aroma between natives and Spaniards
- Seeds of Pueblo Revolt sown.
- 1600 - San Gabriel, second capital of New Mexico, is founded at the confluence of the Rio Grande and the Chama River.
- 1601 -
- Mass desertion of San Gabriel by colonists
- New recruits front Spain and Mexico sent to reinforce colony.
- 1605 - Onate expedition to the Colorado River; visits El Morro, leaves message on Inscription Rock.
- 1608 -
- Onate removed as governor and sent to Mexico City to be tried for mistreatment of the Indians and abuse of power.
- Decision made by Spanish Crown to continue settlement of New Mexico as a royal province.
- 1609-10 -
- Gov. Pedro de Peralta establishes a new capital at Santa Fe.
- Construction begins on the Palace of the Governors.
- Gaspar de Villagra publishes epic history on the founding of New Mexico, the first book printed about any area in the modern United States.
- 1626 - Spanish Inquisition established in New Mexico.
- 1641 - Gov. Luis de Rosas assassinated by colonists during conflict between the church and state.
- 1680 -August 10 - Pueblo Indian Revolt Spanish survivors flee to El Paso del Norte.
- Late 1600's - Navajos, Apaches, lies, and Comanches begin raids against Pueblo Indians.
- 1692-93 -
- September 14, 1692, Don Diegode Vargas proclaimed a formal act of possession and recolonizes Santa Fe.
- Spanish civilization returns to New Mexico.
- 1695 - Santa Cruz de la Cahada (Canada) founded.
- 1696 - Second Pueblo Revolt; efforts thwarted by Gov. De Vargas.
- 1706 - Villa de Albuquerque founded.
- 1743 - French trappers reach Santa Fe and begin limited trade with the Spanish.
- 1776 - Franciscan friars Dominguez and Escalante explore route from out New Mexico to California.
- 1786 - Gov. Juan Bautista de Anza makes peace with the Comanches.
- 1793 - First school text printed in New Mexico by Padre Antonio Jose Martinez of Taos.
- 1807 -
- Zebulon Pike leads first Anglo American expedition into New Mexico.
- Publishes account of way of life in New Mexico upon return to U.S.
- 1821 -
- Mexico declares independence from Spain.
- Santa Fe Trail opened to international trade.
- 1828 - First major gold discovery in western U. S. made in Ortiz Mountains south of Santa Fe.
- 1837 - Chimayo Revolt against Mexican taxation leads to the assassination of Gov. Albino Perez and top officials.
- 1841 -
- Texas soldiers invade New Mexico and claim all land east of the Rio Grande.
- Efforts thwarted by Gov. Manuel Armijo.
- 1846 -
- Mexican-American War begins.
- Stephen Watts Kearny annexes New Mexico to the United States.
- 1847 -
- Taos Rebellion against the U.S. military.
- Gov. Chat Charles Bent killed.
- 1848 - Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends Mexican-American War.
- 1850 - September 9 - New Mexico (which included present-day Arizona, southern Colorado, southern Utah, and southern Nevada) is designated a territory but denied statehood.
- 1851 - Bishop Jean Baptiste Lamy arrives in New Mexico and establishes schools, hospitals and orphanages throughout the territory
- 1854 - The Gadsden Purchase front Mexico adds 45,000 square miles to the territory
- 1861 -
- July - Confederates invade New Mexico front Texas.
- The Confederate Territory of Arizona is declared with the capital at La Mesilla.
- Territory of Colorado is created. New Mexico loses extreme northern-most section to the new territory
- 1862 - February 12 - Battles of Velarde de and Glorieta Pass fought, ends confederate occupation of New Mexico.
- 1863-68 - Known as the "Long Walk," Navajos and Apaches are relocated to Bosque Redondo: finally allowed to return to their homelands after thousands die of disease and starvation.
- 1863 -
- New Mexico is partitioned in half.
- Territory of Arizona is created.
- 1878 -
- The railroad arrives in New Mexico, opening full-scale trade and migration from the east and midwest.
- Lincoln County War erupts in southeast New Mexico
- 1881 - Billy the Kid shot by Sheriff Pat Garrett in Fort Sumner N.M.
1886 - Geronimo surrenders; Indian hostilities cease in the Southwest.
- 1898 - First movie filmed in New Mexico, Indian Day School by Thomas A. Edison.
- 1906 - People of New Mexico and Arizona vote on issue of joint statehood, New Mexico voting in favor and Arizona against.
- 1911 - January 21 -New Mexico Constitution drafted in preparation for statehood.
- 1912 - January 6 - New Mexico admitted to the Union as the 47th state.
- 1916 - March 16 - Pancho Villa raids Columbus, N.M.
1920 - Adoption of the l9th Amendment gives women the right to vote.
- 1922 - Secretary of State Soledad Chacon and Superintendent of Public Instruction Isabel Eckles elected first women to hold statewide office.
- 1923-24 - Oil is discovered on the Navajo Reservation.
- 1930-43 -
- Great Depression.
- Federal New Deal funds provide employment for many and causes numerous public buildings to be constructed.
- 1942-45 -
- New Mexico soldiers serving in the 200th Coast Artillery during World War II are captured by the Japanese and forced to endure the Bataan Death March.
- Navajo "Codetalkers" are influential in helping end the war.
- Secret atomic laboratories established at Los Alamos.
- 1945 - World's first atomic bomb detonated at Trinity Site in southern New Mexico after its development at Los Alamos.
- 1947 - UFO allegedly crashes between Roswell and Corona, believers claim U.S. government institutes massive coverup of the incident.
- 1948 - Native Americans will the right to vote in state elections.
- 195O - Uranium discovered near Grants.
- 1957 - Buddy Holly records Peggy Sue at Norman Petty Studio in Clovis.
- 1966 - New state capitol, the "Roundhouse," is dedicated.
- 1969 - Proposed new state constitution is rejected by voters.
- 1982 - Space shuttle Columbia lands at White Sands Space Harbor oil Holloman Air Force Base near Alamogordo.
- 1992 - New Mexico observes Columbus Quincentenary, welcomes Cristobal Colon XX, direct descendent of Christopher Columbus.
- 1994 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) increased trade with Mexico.
- 1998 - New Mexico celebrates its cuartocentenario, 400th anniversary commemorating its 1598 founding by Juan de Onate.
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